Patterns and their Relation to Psychological Traits in Women
Ivette Rivera, Dra. Ana
Isabel Sánchez, Dr. Pablo Enrique Vera-Villarroel, Dr. Gualberto
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de Psicología.Universidad de Granada.
number of hours of sleep, approximately 8, is an average that varies
little from one culture to another. However, there are individual
differences for this variable, which has permitted the establishment of
certain sleep patterns. Many studies have focused on the relationship
between psychological variables and sleep patterns, which have produced
contradictory results. The purpose of the present investigation is to
evaluate the extent of dimensions of extraverted and neurotic
personalities and state-trait anxiety levels in women with different sleep
patterns. In a sample of 300 young healthy adults, 34 women were selected,
17 women showed a long sleep pattern, 9 showed an intermediate sleep
pattern and 8 showed a short sleep pattern (age X = 20.29 SD = 1.55). The
results indicate that there are no significant statistical differences
between psychological variables and sleep patterns, which concludes that
there exists no relation between sleep duration and personality and
La cantidad de horas de
sueño, aproximadamente 8 horas es una constante que varía muy poco de
una cultura a otra. A pesar de ello, existen grandes diferencias
individuales en esta variable, lo que ha permitido que se establezcan ciertos patrones de sueño. Son muchos los estudios que se han
centrado en relacionar variables psicológicas y patrones de sueño,
siendo los resultados en cierto modo contradictorios. Por ello, el
objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar las dimensiones de
personalidad extraversión y neuroticismo y los niveles de ansiedad
estado/rasgo de sujetos con diferentes patrones de sueño. De una muestra
de 300 adultos jóvenes sanos se seleccionaron a 34 mujeres, 17 con patrón
de sueño largo, 9 patrón intermedio y 8 patrón corto (edad C=
20,29 DT=1,55). Los resultados indican que no existen diferencias estadísticamente
entre variables psicológicas y patrones de sueño, por lo que hay
que concluir que no hay relación entre la duración del sueño y factores
de personalidad y ansiedad.
order to function adequately and to adapt to an environment, living
organisms need to sleep for a number of hours. The necessary number of
hours for human beings depend on biological, behavioral and environmental
factors. As a result, certain sleep patterns have been established which
characterize each individual. Sleep patterns are measurements that
identify the presence of sleep within a 24 hours period. The indicators
for these patterns are the onset and the completion of sleep .
Consistent with this, different sleep patterns exist within sleep
duration. Short-sleep pattern individuals usually sleep 6 hours or less,
and long-sleep pattern individuals sleep 9 or more hours. Both are extreme
sleep patterns which are characteristic of people with heterogeneous life
styles. Most people sleep between 6 ½ and
8 hours, which refers to an intermediate sleep pattern .
authors have investigated psychological variables and sleep patterns.
However, results have been inconsistent in establishing conclusive
results. Hartmann et al  reported that long-sleep pattern individuals
are more introverted and neurotic than short-sleep pattern individuals.
Skinner  supported these findings in a study with university students.
Wagner et al  found that long-sleep pattern individuals have a tendency
to score higher on pathological traits of the MMPI clinical measures.
Hartmann et al  concluded that with respect to neurotic disorders,
long-sleep pattern individuals possess significantly higher anxiety levels
than short-sleep pattern individuals. Chattopadhyay et al  conducted a
study with children and obtained similar results. Children with long-sleep
patterns were more anxious, introverted and neurotic than children with
short-sleep patterns. However, according to Hicks et al  short-sleep
pattern individuals were more anxious than long sleep pattern individuals.
Kumar et al  found similar results in the Indian population, where
short-sleep pattern individuals presented higher levels of neuroticism.
to topic controversy, Webb  revised most relevant studies on this
subject. He concluded that differences found by others concerning the
personality traits of both groups really have not been proven. Buela-Casal
et al  confirmed these results. These authors concluded that
differences found in long- and short-sleep pattern individuals, apart from
sleep duration, are not proven [2,11].
Due to existing controversial results about sleep duration and its
relation to personality traits, the purpose of the present investigation
is to evaluate if the intermediate, short- and long-sleep pattern
individuals showed differences in the personality traits of extroversion
and neuroticism, and in the variable referred to as state-trait anxiety.
first selection phase of Research participants was composed of 300 young
adults. In the second phase,
a sample of 34 women between the ages of 19 and 25 years was selected (X =
20.29 years SD = 1.55). The sample of 34 women contained 17 long sleep
pattern individuals, 9 intermediate sleep pattern individuals and 8 short
sleep pattern individuals.
Behavior and Habits Questionnaire.
The questionnaire consists of 8 questions concerning sleep habits and the
person’s vigil at different moments of their life.
This same questionnaire classifies the individuals into three
categories: short, intermediate and long sleep patterns .
Personality Inventory (E.P.I.)
. This scale measures two personality traits: neuroticism and
Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
This test evaluates two anxiety elements: anxiety as a state and anxiety
as a trait.
Sleep Behavior and Habits questionnaire was administered to the original
sample of individuals in order to classify the individuals according to
their sleep pattern. From this first group, the sample of 34 women was
obtained and each one voluntarily accepted to participate in the
experiment. Of the 34 women, 17 showed a long sleep pattern, 9 showed an
intermediate sleep pattern and 8 showed a short sleep pattern. All of the
34 women were individually administered the tests, with the first being
the STAI and the second being the EPI Form A.
As seen in Table 1, the results the Kruskal-Wallis test indicate that there are no significant statistical differences between the three groups with respect to the scores obtained on the EPI for the neuroticism variable [c2 = 0,84; p<0,65] as well as the extroversion variable [c2 = 2,30; p<0,32]. All the groups scored within an intermediate range for neuroticism and within a high range for extraversion. The ANOVA results reveal no significant statistical differences between the three groups when referring to an anxiety state [c2 = 0,10; p<0,95] and an anxiety trait [c2 = 2,40; p<0,30], as seen in Table 2.
general, the results repeat the findings of various authors on the topic.
All investigations carried out contrast only extreme patterns, for which
it is important to point out that the present study has been included in
the third group. After an analysis of the results, we observe the same
tendency found in working with extreme patterns; there are no differences
with respect to the psychological variables (extraversion, neuroticism and
state-trait anxiety) in individuals with distinct sleep patterns. These
results agree with those found by Webb et al  and Buela-Casal et al
[10,11], among other authors. However, the results differ with those found
by Hartmann et al , Hicks et al , and more recently with those of
Chattopadhyay et al , who found psychological differences related to
sleep patterns. Webb’s conclusion is confirmed, which acknowledges that
differences between sleep patterns in relation to personality variables
are not proven, making evident that the difference between the 3 groups
being studied are fundamentally from sleep duration .
information obtained, once again, demonstrates that there is no
relationship between the psychological variables and sleep patterns.
However, it would be important to associate the sleep patterns with
physical and physiological variables. Likewise, the future remains open
for those interested in the field, to include varied sleep pattern
individuals and compare the results.
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